Start studying Lifespan Development Chapter 6 Quiz. D. the influence of heredity of temperament C. factors that increase the likelihood of insecure attachment According to the text, most studies of father-infant relationships ______. Nov 29, Two global strategies to address the issues of infant formula include the International Code Breastfeeding can assist in attachment development and increase maternal There is strong evidence that fathers can influence the initiation and .. Factors influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed in public. Apr 18, A child's relationship with her father is more important than we've ever realized. at the unique and important ways fathers influence their children. A number of factors can determine a father's success, including the following:[v] Or on the other hand, if a mother isn't able to care for an infant well, as may.
How important do you think breastfeeding is for a baby? How did you support your partner during her breastfeeding? Each focus group lasted from 60 to 90 minutes, and to minimise interviewer bias and ensure consistency, one of the research team experienced in focus group research facilitated all of the sessions.
All focus group discussions were recorded using two digital recorders, plus a research assistant wrote summary notes.
Is Your Husband The Father Of Your Baby? Take The Second Test!
Each participant signed a consent form prior to commencement of the focus groups or gave verbal consent for a telephone interview. Refreshments were provided to all participants attending the focus groups and a gift card incentive was given to every participant to acknowledge their time.
The online survey, developed through Survey Monkey, incorporated all the questions from the fathers' focus group and allowed for open ended questions.
This type of questioning facilitated the collection of rich qualitative data. Data analysis Qualitative data analysis consisted of two processes. The first involved identifying, coding, and categorising themes found in the data [ 39 ]. Data from the audio-tapes were transcribed by the first author and analysed using a constant comparison method modified from the grounded theory approach [ 40 ]. In this process, all transcribed data were coded manually and common themes and categories created.
This created additional understanding of the interactions and perceptions of the participants. The participants' reflections, conveyed in their own words, strengthen the validity and credibility of the research [ 41 ]. Transcripts were cross-checked by four of the researchers and categories and themes corroborated to ensure credibility and conformability of the data analysis. The second process of analysis used the element of Social Cognitive Theory and the Health Belief Model as an analytical framework from which identified themes were considered.
Results The participants were mainly first time parents who were geographically located across the Perth metropolitan area. These locations included western high incomeeastern average incomesouthern lower income and northern average income suburbs [ 42 ].
The age of mothers ranged from 18 to 37 years and fathers from 26 to 48 years. A number of practical support strategies were suggested by the mothers and included: As far as providing emotional support, women suggested that their partner could give praise or compliments, plus boost her confidence with encouraging comments acknowledging her breastfeeding efforts.
The Role of Fathers with Daughters and Sons
Analysis of the data revealed two major themes, "Dads do make a difference" and "Wanting to be involved", relating to paternal support with sub-themes describing the perceptions of effective paternal support from both mothers and fathers.
Mothers' responses identified three common sub-themes relating to fathers making a difference, which were: Fathers' responses identified three common sub-themes related to being involved, which were: Pseudonyms and participants age have been used to illustrate the participants' comments to support the themes developed.
Dads do make a difference The theme "Dads do make a difference" emerged from all focus groups with a wide range of situations presented where fathers made a difference and numerous examples of practical ways in which they helped, including assistance with expressing breast milk: Only poor people breastfeed.
They didn't understand what the urgency and importance of breastfeeding was for me. Without him [partner] I couldn't have done it [breastfed] really. One mother spoke about how useful it was that her partner was able to remember the attachment and positioning skills for breastfeeding; "He was sort of assisting me when the lactation consultant was around and he would remind me later, because I would forget things like that. He would actually observe and try to make suggestions about positioning and attachment, which was good for both practical and moral support.
He just got up straight away and brought her to me. Then there was an hour gap and I would have to start feeding her again, so he pretty much did everything; cooked, cleaned, went to work.
I think it's really important that husbands need to be home each day for the first month to help, because that's when the problems tend to happen. Mothers talked about the difficulties in the first few weeks at home with a newborn, and how important it was that their partner was encouraging and accepted the time commitment to breastfeeding.
As the following mother related: Paternal commitment to breastfeeding Believing that breast milk was best for their child and willing to do what was necessary to assist his partner to breastfeed, saw one father go "head to head" with the hospital staff following his partner's emergency caesarean birth. But he'd taken it in and when it was necessary, he's stepped up and pushed back the medical staff and said to them 'breast milk is best.
It's here, it's available, and that's what my baby's having. It's one of those situations where I could easily have come out of the general anaesthetic and gone.
He just knew to get the pump, and we pumped for six weeks. He set that up for me, helping me get the attachment right. However, when the fathers' data were analysed the major theme "Wanting to be involved" emerged. Three sub-themes also emerged: Wanting to be involved Fathers participating in the study all wanted to be involved with parenting and parenthood, but many of them felt they were unprepared and lacked the relevant information to be effective in their parenting role.
One father spoke about feeling left out and neglected because he didn't understand what his partner was going through: I think a lot of those things; the feeling of neglect could have been avoided by having someone explain to me what the women really go through and how to make things easier or better.
Encourage them to get involved in day to day stuff. Even though fathers had often attended antenatal education classes they still felt inadequately prepared: Antenatal classes give the impression that fathers have nothing to do with their child. Confirmation that the mother is just as out of her depth as the father, and that it is a team effort. His concern and horror about a piece of his wife's nipple falling off was in no way mediated by any of the information he had received during the antennal education process: Learning the role The requirement for pragmatic information and realistic solutions being incorporated into learning the role were identified by participants who talked with pride about their babies and what it meant to be a father.
As one dad said: Seeing part of yourself in your little boy. Showing him off to family, friends and everyone else. Watching him interact with his beautiful mother. As the following father related: How to comfort your partner, the kind words you can say to support her. Hints on helping and understanding new mothers. Some advise on caring for the new baby.
When baby's happy then everything is good. As this father explained to his extended family: Please be respectful, we feel it's best to do it this way [breastfeed]. Thank you for understanding. He also describes the shift from a sexual to functional use of the breast: I guess there's still that well, it's like shame, and you don't want everyone looking at things [breasts] that have been private.
And suddenly you've gone from being a sexual thing to a kitchen utensil. While it was difficult to recruit fathers for focus groups due to time constraints associated with work commitments, fathers responded to an online survey that they could do in their own time. This data collection process enabled fathers to express their fears and concerns about the whole process of parenting and their lack of adequate information and preparation.
There was a consistency between the themes that emerged from both the mothers and the fathers, with both believing that breastfeeding was a team effort and that father's support was essential to the mother being able to breastfeed successfully.
The tasks and activities fathers provided, as identified by the mothers, such as encouragement and problem solving were consistent with the requirements that fathers identified; for example the need for real information. In support of these themes, Wolfberg et al. In acknowledging the importance of paternal support for successful breastfeeding, Susin and Giugliani found that mothers would like more help from their partners, but were sometimes unclear what type of help they wished to receive [ 44 ].
They also found most fathers wanted to help mothers but did not know what they could do to help, which again reflects the fathers' views in the sub-theme "Learning the role". The sub-themes of "Encouragement to do your best" and "Being an advocate" were supported in the literature by Scott et al [ 45 ] and Scott and Binns [ 46 ], who identified the father as the most important support person to give encouragement and advocacy.
Barriers to effective breastfeeding identified by the participants included physical problems such as poor attachment and cracked or bleeding nipples contributing to challenges with breastfeeding, inadequate knowledge about how to manage potential breastfeeding problems, and exclusion of the male partner during the antenatal classes.Parenting Styles and Child Resilience - Latest Research - Fathers' Rights
Disturbingly, fathers identified a lack of "real information", a lack of recognition for their role, lack of engagement during the antenatal education process, and lack of commitment to breastfeeding by hospital staff as barriers they needed to overcome in their role as advocates and supporters of breastfeeding.
This finding is supported by two recent studies: The need for clear concise information is essential if fathers are to be advocates for breastfeeding. The findings from this study highlight the importance of practical, emotional and physical support for mothers. Research suggests many women have difficulty breastfeeding and need the support of their partner to be successful.
The importance of breastfeeding was identified by the fathers in this study. Giving fathers more information about the breastfeeding benefits for both mother and baby [ 47 ], and possible problems associated with breastfeeding can give them the confidence to support their partners and become breastfeeding advocates [ 4950 ].
Similarly, Sheehan et al. Ingram and Johnson worked with fathers to increase breastfeeding support for mothers and found that fathers' attitudes to breastfeeding in public and knowing how much milk the baby was getting had the most influence on whether they supported their partner to continue to breastfeed [ 52 ]. The men participating in this study clearly wanted information about how they could support their partners in the postnatal period including support of breastfeeding, and were motivated and ready to learn.
Teaching fathers how to prevent and to manage the most common lactation difficulties is associated with higher rates of breastfeeding at six months [ 47 ].
Parenting Style: The Role of Fathers with Daughters and Sons
Breastfeeding cannot be promoted without it also being supported socially, economically, and politically [ 53 ], and women should be encouraged to breastfeed, while institutions and communities are challenged to remove the barriers to breastfeeding continuation [ 54 ]. Identifying the different methods of support can assist antenatal educators to promote the skills necessary to successfully breastfeed. There was disparity between the advice and support some health professionals provided and the needs of the fathers as breastfeeding champions in this study.
This was also found by Hauck et al. This study strongly supports policy changes within the maternity units that reflect a commitment to breastfeeding and that reduce conflicting advice. Recommendations that health professionals should educate all key family members, both during pregnancy and in the postnatal period, on the benefits of breast milk, and on how to encourage and support mothers in the early weeks of breastfeeding have already been made [ 5556 ]. A move towards Baby Friendly hospitals across the state would greatly increase the opportunity for greater education and support for ongoing breastfeeding as the natural choice for infant feeding.
Increasing Baby Friendly hospitals globally could increase both breastfeeding initiation and duration, and this study promotes the continuance of these recommendations. Conclusion Men want to be part of the parenting role and need information and knowledge. This would give them the opportunity to synthesise the information and apply the knowledge to feel confident and competent in their new role as an involved parent.
The role of practical and emotional support from fathers is an essential ingredient to successful breastfeeding, increasing the mother's confidence and enabling her to maintain an adequate milk supply. Whilst breastfeeding remains the sole domain of women, the essential support of their partners can be a lost opportunity. Empowering both parents to make and sustain a commitment to breastfeeding requires the infrastructure and human resources to make this possible. The fact that some participants in this study experienced a lack of commitment to breastfeeding by some hospital staff may indicate that additional training is required in hospitals.
Baby Friendly hospitals Australia-wide and globally could be the first step to educating maternity staff and health professionals to the importance and benefits of breastfeeding, though if Bartington et al. However, recognition that breastfeeding is a family issue benefits everyone. When difficulties encountered by mothers are shared with their partners, babies will have a better chance of receiving breast milk exclusively for the recommended six months, and with complementary food could continue to breastfeed for two years or more.
Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors' contributions JT participated in the data collection and analysis and drafted the manuscript. BM has made substantial contributions to conception and design and in revising the manuscript for intellectual content and given final approval. YLH has made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data and analysis and interpretation of data; involved in manuscript revision. PH has made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data and analysis and interpretation of data; involved in manuscript revision.
SB has made substantial contributions to conception and design and participated in manuscript revision. CWB has made substantial contributions to conception and design. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge Healthway for funding this project and thank the mothers and fathers who shared their experiences of breastfeeding.
A randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. Effects of support on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. West J Nurs Res. Breastfeeding in Australia, American Academy of Pediatrics statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices. Applying a conceptual framework.
The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Results of a WHO systematic review. Other pluses, according to experts: A good dad can be a positive role model for boys and help them to adopt a healthy gender identity as well as a better awareness of their feelings and emotions.
However, someone other than the boy's birth father can provide a beneficial male influence. Single mothers can find alternative role models for their boys in an uncle, grandfather, or good friend. If no relatives or close acquaintances are available, then mentoring programs such as Big Brothers can provide a willing volunteer.
Dad's Impact on His Daughters Girls, too, reap some special benefits from having a close father-daughter bond. According to research from Vanderbilt University, girls who had close, positive relationships with their fathers during the first five years of life tended to reach puberty later than girls who had more distant relationships with their fathers. In addition, the University of Oxford researchers noted that girls who had more involved fathers were less likely to face mental health problems later in life.
Genuine praise and admiration from a father can help his daughter grow up to be an independent, confident woman. All content here, including advice from doctors and other health professionals, should be considered as opinion only. Always seek the direct advice of your own doctor in connection with any questions or issues you may have regarding your own health or the health of others.