Zimbabwe faces sanctions by West as Mugabe steals election victory - Telegraph
More recently there are claims Mugabe tried to meet with the MDC's disgruntled he could face the loss of his farms and even his pension benefits. Mugabe used to say that the opposition MDC was a puppet of the West. Zimbabwe faces sanctions by West as Mugabe steals election victory a press conference in Harare after an emergency meeting of the MDC. Two arch-nemeses of the west, Robert Mugabe and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, came face to face in Harare today despite criticism of Zimbabwe's.
He has won two elections as prime minister and three as president. The United States and Britain have already imposed limited sanctions on Zimbabwe's leaders. A plan to extend the sanctions regime was being considered last night. However, he was holding back from making a formal declaration that the election had been "stolen" from the opposition until he had heard the verdict of the Commonwealth's observers. Jack Straw, the Foreign Secretary, will make a statement to the Commons today about the Government's formal response.
However, he told reporters in Downing Street that the Government considered Mr Mugabe's victory deeply flawed, saying that his government had pursued a "systematic campaign of violence and intimidation" to ensure the result. During a visit to South Africa, Walter Kansteiner, the US assistant secretary for African affairs, called the election flawed and said America would consider further sanctions against Mr Mugabe and his government.
Colin Powell, the US secretary of state, accused Mr Mugabe of a systematic subversion of democracy and said Washington was considering new sanctions. The Commonwealth will now consider whether to take action against Zimbabwe, although the issue divided the nation group at its recent summit in Australia. Nigeria, South Africa and Australia were asked to monitor the situation and decide after the election if Commonwealth action was necessary. The member Southern Africa Development Community Parliamentary Forum condemned the election, citing systematic government violence and interference.
The largest European observer group also found flaws with every step of the electoral process from voter registration and campaigning to the actual vote. The independent Zimbabwe Election Support Network and a coalition of church and civic groups known as the Crisis in Zimbabwe Committee also said the election was fundamentally flawed. Government officials have repeatedly denied that there were any irregularities in the election. Towers of Great Zimbabwe. It is believed that Kalanga speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands.
The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Kalanga states. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal. They traded in gold, ivory and copper for cloth and glass.
From about untilMapungubwe was eclipsed by the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. This Kalanga state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe.
From circa —, Zimbabwe gave way to the Kingdom of Mutapa. This Kalanga state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe today, and parts of central Mozambique.
It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empirealso known as Mwenemutapa was known for its gold trade routes with Arabs and the Portuguese. However, Portuguese settlers destroyed the trade and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century.
Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi which means "destroyers" removed the Portuguese from the Zimbabwe plateau by force of arms.
The Rozwi continued the stone building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding guns to its arsenal and developing a professional army to protect its trade routes and conquests. Aroundthe Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled from King Shaka and created his own clan, the Ndebele.
The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaalleaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane. When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal inthey drove the tribe even further northward. Bythe Rozwi Empire, along with the other petty Shona states were conquered by the Ndebele and reduced to vassaldom.
After losing their remaining South African lands inMzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe in what became known as Matabelelandestablishing Bulawayo as their capital.Robert Mugabe vs Tony Blair
Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraalssimilar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions. Mzilikazi died in and, following a violent power struggle, was succeeded by his son, Lobengula. Colonial era — [ edit ] Main articles: Inthe name Southern Rhodesia was adopted. Rhodes sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyikathen known as 'Zambesia'.
In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties,  Cecil Rhodes promoted the colonisation of the region's land, with British control over labour as well as precious metals and other mineral resources. In' Southern Rhodesia ' became the official denotation for the region south of the Zambezi,  which later became Zimbabwe. Inin the face of African opposition,  Britain consolidated the two colonies of Rhodesia with Nyasaland now Malawi in the ill-fated Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland which was dominated by Southern Rhodesia.
Growing African nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded the UK to dissolve the Union informing three colonies. As colonial rule was ending throughout the continent and as African-majority governments assumed control in neighbouring Northern Rhodesia and in Nyasalandthe white-minority Rhodesian government led by Ian Smith made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence UDI from the United Kingdom on 11 November The United Kingdom deemed this an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force.
The white minority government declared itself a republic in Although Smith's declaration was not recognised by the United Kingdom nor any other foreign power, Southern Rhodesia dropped the designation "Southern", and claimed nation status as the Republic of Rhodesia in   although this was not recognised internationally.
Independence and the 's[ edit ] The country gained official independence as Zimbabwe on 18 April The government held independence celebrations in Rufaro stadium in Salisburythe capital.
Bob Marley sang 'Zimbabwe', a song he wrote, at the government's invitation in a concert at the country's independence festivities. Mugabe's government used part of the money to buy newspaper companies owned by South Africans, increasing the government's control over the media. The rest went to training students in Nigerian universities, government workers in the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria in Badagryand soldiers in the Nigerian Defence Academy in Kaduna. The BBC issued its report on 26 June, recommending the privatisation of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation and its independence from political interests.
History of Zimbabwe
Foreign relations of Zimbabwe Mugabe's government changed the capital's name from Salisbury to Harare on 18 April in celebration of the second anniversary of independence. Reverend Canaan Banana served as the first President. In government amended the Constitution in to provide for an Executive President and abolished the office of Prime Minister.
The constitutional changes came into effect on 1 January with Robert Mugabe as President. The bicameral Parliament of Zimbabwe had a directly elected House of Assembly and an indirectly elected Senate, partly made up of tribal chiefs.
The government amended the Constitution ineliminating the voter rolls and replacing the white seats with seats filled by nominated members. In the government abolished the Senate and increased the House of Assembly's membership to include members nominated by the President.
While Western media outlets praised Mugabe's efforts at reconciliation with the white minoritytension soon developed. He told the BBC that he had asked British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to annul the election prior to the official announcement of the result on the grounds that Mugabe used intimidation to win the election.
Walls said Thatcher had not replied to his request. On 12 August British government officials denied that they had not responded, saying Antony DuffDeputy Governor of Salisbury, told Walls on 3 March that Thatcher would not annul the election.
Mugabe, returning from a visit with United States President Jimmy Carter in New York City, said, "One thing is quite clear—we are not going to have disloyal characters in our society. In government security officials discovered large caches of arms and ammunition on properties owned by ZAPU, accusing Nkomo and his followers of plotting to overthrow the government. Mugabe fired Nkomo and his closest aides from the cabinet. It involved attacks on government personnel and installations, armed banditry aimed at disrupting security and economic life in the rural areas, and harassment of ZANU-PF members.
This gave the government widespread powers under the "Law and Order Maintenance Act," including the right to detain persons without charge which it used quite widely.
In to the government declared a curfew in areas of Matabeleland and sent in the army in an attempt to suppress members of the Ndebele tribe. The pacification campaign, known as the Gukuruhundi, or strong wind, resulted in at least 20, civilian deaths perpetrated by an elite, North Korean-trained brigade, known in Zimbabwe as the Gukurahundi.
The majority gave Mugabe the opportunity to start making changes to the constitution, including those with regard to land restoration. The government began further amending the constitution. The judiciary and human rights advocates fiercely criticised the first amendments enacted in April because they restored corporal and capital punishment and denied recourse to the courts in cases of compulsory purchase of land by the government.
During the s students, trade unionists, and workers often demonstrated to express their discontent with the government.
Students protested in against proposals for an increase in government control of universities and again in and when they clashed with police. Trade unionists and workers also criticised the government during this time.
Robert Mugabe - Wikipedia
In police prevented trade unionists from holding anti-government demonstrations. In widespread industrial unrest weakened the economy. In civil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues. On 9 December a national strike paralysed the country.
Mugabe, West come face to face - DailyNews Live
Mugabe was panicked by demonstrations by Zanla ex-combatants, war veterans, who had been the heart of incursions 20 years earlier in the Bush War. He agreed to pay them large gratuities and pensions, which proved to be a wholly unproductive and unbudgeted financial commitment. The discontent with the government spawned draconian government crackdowns which in turn started to destroy both the fabric of the state and of society.
This in turn brought with it further discontent within the population. Thus a vicious downward spiral commenced.
Mugabe raised this issue of land ownership by white farmers. In a calculated move, he began forcible land redistribution, which brought the government into headlong conflict with the International Monetary Fund. Amid a severe drought in the region, the police and military were instructed not to stop the invasion of white-owned farms by the so-called 'war veterans' and youth militia. This has led to a mass migration of White Zimbabweans out of Zimbabwe.
At present almost no arable land is in the possession of white farmers. The economy during the s and s[ edit ] Main article: Economic history of Zimbabwe The economy was run along corporatist lines with strict governmental controls on all aspects of the economy. Controls were placed on wages, prices and massive increases in government spending resulting in significant budget deficits.
- Navigation menu
- Accessibility links
- BBC News Navigation
This experiment met with very mixed results and Zimbabwe fell further behind the first world and unemployment. Some market reforms in the s were attempted. A 40 per cent devaluation of the Zimbabwean dollar was allowed to occur and price and wage controls were removed.