Explain the doctrine of ethos and relationship to musical thought

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The Greek idea was concerned with the ideas that there is a power in music akin to the power of words for influencing human thought and action, and an artist. We know about Greek musical thought through two kinds of writings: Philosophical doctrines that describe music's place in the cosmos, its effects, and its his followers recognized the numerical relationships that underlay musical intervals-e.g., Greek writers believed that music could affect ethos, one's ethical character. The Doctrine of Ethos thought music was worth pursuing for the sake of understanding art, but did not think they were the study of numbers and their relationship to the physical world--music was considered the study of numbers at the time.

She was a high priestess at Ur. She composed hymns songs to a god to the god and goddess of the moon. Only the texts of her hymns survive. Babylonian musicians began writing about music ca.

Instructions for tuning a string instrument using a seven-note diatonic scale playable on the white keys of a piano Interval theory, with names of intervals used to create the earliest known notation see HWM Figure 1.

Not enough is known about the notation to transcribe it. The poem seems to be a hymn to the wife of the moon god, but the language Hurrian cannot be translated entirely. Although Babylonians had a form of notation, musicians most likely performed from memory, improvised, or used notation as a recipe for reconstructing a melody. Babylonian music theory seems to have influenced later Greek theory. Other Civilizations Instruments, images, and writings about East Asian musical cultures survive, but they seem not to have influenced Greek or European music.

Egyptian sources include artifacts, paintings, and hieroglyphic writings in tombs, but scholars have not been able to determine whether there is any notated music. The Bible describes ancient musical practices in Israel which in turn influenced Christian musicbut ancient copies of the Bible may not have any notation. Instruments and Their Uses Evidence of Greek instruments survives in writings, archaeological remains, and hundreds of images on pots.

Aulos see HWM Figure 1. Pitch could be changed by position in the mouth, air pressure, and fingering. Images show the two pipes being fingered the same, but they could produce octaves, parallel fifths or fourths, drone, and unisons.

The aulos was used in the worship of Dionysus. Dionysus was the god of fertility and wine, hence the drinking scene in HWM Figure 1.

Ethos - Wikipedia

The aulos accompanied or alternated with choruses in the great tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides that were written for Dionysian festivals. The lyre see HWM Figure 1. The player held the instrument in front, supporting it on the hip and from a strap around the left wrist.

Both hands were free to touch the strings. The right hand strummed the strings. The fingers of the left hand touched the strings, perhaps to dampen them or to create harmonics. The lyre was associated with Apollo, god of light, prophecy, learning, and the arts especially music and poetry. Both men and women played the lyre. Learning to play the lyre was a core element of education in Athens.

The lyre was used to accompany dancing, singing, weddings, and the recitation of epic poetry such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. The lyre was also played for recreation. The kithara was a large lyre. Contests and music festivals became popular after the fifth century B. An account of a musical competition in B. Famous artists performed for large crowds, gave concert tours, and demanded high fees from wealthy patrons. Women were excluded from competition but could perform recitals, often to critical acclaim.

Other than the virtuoso soloists, the majority of professional performers were slaves or servants. Greek Musical Thought We know about Greek musical thought through two kinds of writings: Philosophical doctrines that describe music's place in the cosmos, its effects, and its proper uses in society Systematic descriptions of the materials of music music theory Music in Greek mythology Gods and demigods were musical practitioners.

Performance of music Music as a performing art was called melos the root of the word melody.

Doctrine of the affections

Music was monophonic, consisting of one melodic line. There was no concept of harmony or counterpoint. Instruments embellished the melody while a soloist or chorus sang the original version, creating heterophony. Music and poetry were nearly synonymous.

There was no word for artful speech without music. Many Greek words for poetic types are musical terms-e. Music and number Pythagoras and his followers recognized the numerical relationships that underlay musical intervals-e.

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Harmonia was the concept of an orderly whole divisible by parts. The term applied to the order of the universe. Music was allied to astronomy through the notion of harmonia. Mathematical laws were the underpinnings of musical intervals and the movements of heavenly bodies alike. From Plato's time until the beginning of modern astronomy, philosophers believed in a "harmony of the spheres," unheard music created by the movement of planets and other heavenly bodies.

Music and ethos Greek writers believed that music could affect ethos, one's ethical character. Music's mathematical laws permeated the visible and invisible world, including the human soul. The parts of the human soul could be restored to a healthy balance harmony by the correct type of music. The Mixolydian, Dorian, and Phrygian melodies combinations of mode, melodic turns, and general style each had specific effects on the listener. Aristotle argued that music should be part of education because of its power to influence a person's soul.

The theory of imitation holds that a person will imitate the ethos of the music they hear. Aristotle admits that music is enjoyable see last sentence of HWM Source Reading, page 16 and enjoyment is acceptable when part of education and ethos. Others however contend that a speaker's ethos extends to and is shaped by the overall moral character and history of the speaker—that is, what people think of his or her character before the speech has even begun cf Isocrates.

According to Aristotlethere are three categories of ethos: Thus, it is the audience that determines whether a speaker is a high- or a low-ethos speaker. Violations of ethos include: The speaker has a direct interest in the outcome of the debate e. Completely dismissing an argument based on any of the above violations of ethos is an informal fallacy Appeal to motive. The argument may indeed be suspect; but is not, in itself, invalid.

Modern interpretations[ edit ] This section may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure. June Learn how and when to remove this template message For Aristotle, a speaker's ethos was a rhetorical strategy employed by an orator whose purpose was to "inspire trust in his audience" Rhetorica Ethos was therefore achieved through the orator's "good sense, good moral character, and goodwill", and central to Aristotelian virtue ethics was the notion that this "good moral character" was increased in virtuous degree by habit Rhetorica Discussing women and rhetoric, scholar Karlyn Kohrs Campbell notes that entering the public sphere was considered an act of moral transgression for females of the nineteenth century: While Warner contends that members of counterpublics are afforded little opportunity to join the dominant public and therefore exert true agency, Nancy Fraser has problematized Habermas's conception of the public sphere as a dominant "social totality" [10] by theorizing "subaltern counterpublics", which function as alternative publics that represent "parallel discursive arenas where members of subordinated social groups invent and circulate counterdiscourses, which in turn permit them to formulate oppositional interpretations of their identities, interests, and needs" Johanna Schmertz draws on Aristotelian ethos to reinterpret the term alongside feminist theories of subjectivity, writing that, "Instead of following a tradition that, it seems to me, reads ethos somewhat in the manner of an Aristotelian quality proper to the speaker's identity, a quality capable of being deployed as needed to fit a rhetorical situation, I will ask how ethos may be dislodged from identity and read in such a way as to multiply the positions from which women may speak" Similarly, Nedra Reynolds and Susan Jarratt echo this view of ethos as a fluid and dynamic set of identifications, arguing that "these split selves are guises, but they are not distortions or lies in the philosopher's sense.

Rather they are 'deceptions' in the sophistic sense: Commenting further on the classical etymology and understanding of ethos, Halloran illuminates the interdependence between ethos and cultural context by arguing that "To have ethos is to manifest the virtues most valued by the culture to and for which one speaks" Karen Burke LeFevre's argument in Invention as Social Act situates this negotiation between the private and the public, writing that ethos "appears in that socially created space, in the 'between', the point of intersection between speaker or writer and listener or reader" However, Reynolds additionally discusses how one might clarify the meaning of ethos within rhetoric as expressing inherently communal roots.

This stands in direct opposition to what she describes as the claim "that ethos can be faked or 'manipulated'" because individuals would be formed by the values of their culture and not the other way around Rhetorical scholar John Oddo also suggests that ethos is negotiated across a community, and not simply a manifestation of the self In the era of mass-mediated communication, Oddo contends, one's ethos is often created by journalists and dispersed over multiple news texts.

With this in mind, Oddo coins the term intertextual ethos, the notion that a public figure's "ethos is constituted within and across a range of mass media voices" In "Black Women Writers and the Trouble with Ethos", scholar Coretta Pittman notes that race has been generally absent from theories of ethos construction, and that this concept is troubling for black women.

Pittman writes, "Unfortunately, in the history of race relations in America, black Americans' ethos ranks low among other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. More often than not, their moral characters have been associated with a criminalized and sexualized ethos in visual and print culture" These include the single unchanging scene, necessary use of the chorus, small number of characters limiting interaction, large outdoor theatres, and the use of masks, which all influenced characters to be more formal and simple.

04 Harris/Murray/Peterson Discussion: London

One of these is the fact that tragedy characters were nearly always mythical characters. This limited the character, as well as the plot, to the already well-known myth from which the material of the play was taken. The other characteristic is the relatively short length of most Greek plays. To support this, he points out the example of Antigone who, even though she strongly defies Creon in the beginning of the play, begins to doubt her cause and plead for mercy as she is led to her execution.